RTE Infobank

Right to Education

The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. ‘Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group. With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.

Education Essentials

Sarv Shikshan Abhiyan

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, or SSA, is an Indian Government programme aimed at the universalisation of elementary education “in a time bound manner”, as mandated by the 86th Amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory education to children between the ages of 6 to 14 (estimated to be 205 million children in 2001) a fundamental right.

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Mid Day Meal

The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the Government of India designed to improve the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide. The programme supplies free lunches on working days for children in primary and upper primary classes in government, government aided, local body, Education Guarantee Scheme, and alternate innovative education centres, Madarsa and Maqtabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, and National Child Labour Project schools run by the ministry of labour. Serving 120,000,000 children in over 1,265,000 schools and Education Guarantee Scheme centres, it is the largest such programme in the world.

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National Achievement Survey

To monitor improvement in children’s learning levels and to periodically assess the health of the government education system as a whole, the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has been periodically conducting National Achievement Surveys (NAS) since 2001.

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Mahila Samakhya Programme

Mahila Samakhya – meaning education for women’s equality – was launched in 1989 by the Government of India in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Karnataka. Today , Mahila Samakhya is active in 12,000 villages, over 60 districts in 9 states including Bihar, where UNICEF and Mahila Samakhya have been partners for a long time. The guiding principle of the programme is the centrality of education in empowering women to achieve basic equality. It strives to make women aware, empowered, capable and self-reliant. Mahila Samakhya has been particularly successful in targeting out-of-school girls by working with the community to create learning opportunities in alternative centres, residential camps and early childhood development centres.

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Scheme To Provide Quality Education In Madras

SPQEM seeks to bring about qualitative improvement in Madrasas to enable Muslim children attain standards of the national education system in formal education subjects.

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Scheme For Infrastructure Development In Minority Institutes

IDMI has been operationalisedto augment Infrastructure in Private Aided/Unaided Minority Schools/Institutions in order to enhance quality of education to minority children.

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Essentials of the RTE Act:

 • The RTE Act provides for the Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school.
• It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.
• It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class.
• It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments.
• It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours.
• It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief.
• It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications.
• It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition,
It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centred learning.

RTE Rules / Guidelines / Regulations
RTE In States
Sr.No.RTE RuleFile
1Notification regarding Relaxation under Section 23(2) of the RTE Act, 2009 to the State of Assam – (265 KB)Downlaod
2RTE (Amendment) Rules, 2017 – (1.10 MB)Downlaod
3RTE (Amendment) Rules, 2015 – (140 KB)Downlaod
4Guidelines for curbing malpractices in schools(2.76 MB)Downlaod
5Relaxation under Section 23(2) of RTE Act to the state of West Bengal – (288 KB)Downlaod
6Applicability of the RTE Act, 2009 to the minority education institutions (597 KB)Downlaod
7Guidelines for Special Training and Definition of OoSC – (919 KB)Downlaod
8Guidelines on Safety and Security of Children, 2014 – (18.4 MB)Downlaod
9Gazette of India on 11th September, 2014 regarding extension of Relaxation to the state of Uttarakhand – (2.53 MB)Downlaod
10Article 21A of the Constitution – Constitution (Eighty – Sixth Amendment) Act – (168 KB)Downlaod
11The Right of Children to Free And Compulsory Education Act, 2009 dated 27th August 2009 – (735 KB)Downlaod
12Notification dated 16th February ,2010 enforcement of regarding Constitution (Eighty-Sixth Amendment) Act (168 KB)Downlaod
13Notification dated 31st March,2010 for appointment of NCTE as academic authority and of NCERT as the academic authority -(122 KB)Downlaod
14Model Rules under the RTE Act , 2009. – (143 KB)Downlaod
15RTE RulesDownlaod
Sr.No.StateState RulesLocal AuthorityGrievance RedressalAdvisory CouncilDefinition of DG WSConstitution of SMCActivity MappingConstitution of SCPCR/REPA
1Andaman and NicobarDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
2Andhra PradeshDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
3Arunachal PradeshDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
8Dadra and Nagar HaveliDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
9Daman and DiuDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
14Himachal PradeshDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
15Jammu and KashmirDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
20Madhya PradeshDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
31Tamil NaduDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
34Uttar PradeshDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
36West BengalDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownloadDownload
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